The role of oncogenes in sustaining proliferaQve signaling, one of the hallmarks of cancer.

The role of oncogenes in sustaining proliferaQve signaling, one of the hallmarks of cancer.

Consider the following ….
1. Discuss the normal cellular funcQons of proto-oncogenes.
2. Explain how oncogenes are acQvated in cancer and how they contribute towards proliferaQve signaling.
3. Give examples of oncogenes and relevant signaling pathways that they acQvate that contributes to tumour cell proliferaQon
4. You may want to refer to tumour suppressor genes, but these should not be the focus of the essay.
5. Explain how oncogenes contribute towards development of the tumour microenvironment (stroma cells) and in turn how the tumour microenvironment contributes towards sustaining tumour proliferaQve signaling:
– eg RAS oncogene upregulates expression of growth factors that acQvate the angiogenic switch; in turn, the tumour vasculature helps sustain proliferative signaling
-Consider how mutaQons in oncogenes in cancer cells (eg,mutated RAS, can influence the TME to their proliferative advantage

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