Questions and Hypotheses

1. Research Questions and Hypotheses
Use the following example to devise your own research question and corresponding research hypothesis. Be sure to state the latter in both null and alternative forms and to indicate whether it is one-tailed or two-tailed.
Research Hypothesis (two-tailed):
Ho: There is no relationship between SAT scores and college completion.
Ha: There is a relationship between SAT scores and college completion.

Research Hypothesis (one-tailed):
Ho: Persons with high SAT scores are equally as likely or less likely than those with low SAT scores to complete college.
Ha: Persons with high SAT scores are more likely to complete college.

2. Observational Study Designs
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the observational study designs introduced in this module. Which design optimizes internal validity? Which optimizes external validity?

3. The Sampling Frame
Locate a study reported in the empirical literature, and identify its target population, sampling frame, and sample. Were the sampling frames in these studies readily apparent? Please explain.

4. Variable Operationalization
How might one operationalize the following variables: diet, physical activity, health status, and social support? Be sure to note variable type (categorical versus continuous) and/or level (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)