OSHA that came in to play in 2007 repealed the employees act in that employers are supposed safe and does not cause any health hazard to the employee and if it does to cease operations of the company until necessary measures are taken. The employee on the other hand has a duty to ensure he keeps his working environment clean and free of occupation hazards. In addition he should prepare a report at the end of year auditing his safety and heath that is submitted to the relevant advisor annually. Occupational safety and health administration in a law passed to ensure every employee during the course of the work is safe and the working conditions are fulfilling. OSHA also safeguards human resources from destruction via pollution or mere mishandling by users. With this aim OSHA was established by the law department to control the safety and also the health conditions for employers. It was introduced to help employees and their employers identify and reduce working hazards, introduce and safeguard existing laws that protect them from being exposed to these dangers. It has also created background for research on the dangers affecting occupational safety and ways of cubing these menaces. Further it safeguards the rights of employees to be safe during work and also monitors by record keeping such cases of injuries, deaths or illnesses at work place. OSHA sets standards on how to deal with violations of human safety and also takes the initiative to train both the employers and employee on occupational hazards and the need to discourage them. Such standards help to protect human life and also increase quality of working. Occupational hazards in stone cutting plants have been known to cause injuries, diseases and also loss of lives thus must be avoided. Demographics by the European Agency for Safety and Health show that 5500 people in the European Union lose their lives and many more die due to occupation accidents thus the need to address the problem (2001). OSHA’S office of Washington DC claimed that by imposing the new rules it reduced the number of deaths by excavation to 60 from 90 thus was making a positive impact in society.

In the Picture provided the most prevalent health hazard is dust which not only causes pollution of the environment but is known to be the biggest problem in stone cutting plants. It is generated during crushing and blasting of stones and these are further increased by the use of hand held saws that are mobile used to cut stones, the lorries carrying the stones and also from other movable machines in the pictures. This dust contains crystals of silica which is naturally occurring in the earths crust and is respirable thus cause dangers in disease such as silicosis, pulmonary disease that causes obstruction and increases the possibility of tuberculosis. These diseases can result to permanent disability or even death though the symptoms take time to appear. Dust may also cause allegies and may also accerelate diseases such as asthma. Dust also free from silica can also scelerosis and pheumonia due to the presence of quartz which can also be inhaled.  According to CDC National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety almost 1.7 Million employees are exposed to silica dust in the US thus an increase in associated diseases. The main disease caused by silica dust is silicosis that affect the respiratory system and reduces the lungs ability to take up oxygen. This disease has no cure and the most vulnerable groups are of those who smoke and stone cutting employees. OSHA is addressing the problem of dust as an occupational hazard by introducing a limit through which permissible exposure can occur. It has established a maximum amount of silica which one can inhale in a day. It requires workers to undergo hazard communication through training about crystalline silica. OSHA has an additional program that helps to recognize, decrease and eliminate the dangers of occupational exposure


This can however be prevented by the use of protective clothing such as masks and also by incorporating pressurized water tanks in movable saws so as to reduce the dust. Respiratory protective devices are also worn to prevent inhalation of the dust. Other environmental hazards such as fluctuation to changes in temperature like hot and very cold areas must be acclimatized since they can cause fatal diseases.

The other hazard is the location and the plan of the plant. The site where production of the stone is taking place is located near the machinery and also the offices of the plant. There is also a road passing by and there are no head lights while clearly they are vehicles and motorists passing nearby. The exit vehicles carrying the processed stones are also using the same entrance thus a high possibility of accidents. The location of the plant offices should be far from the production area and headlights should be installed. Further there should be both an exit and entrance for vehicles leaving and coming in to prevent commotion. A sign board indicating that driving should be at a low speed should also be input. The plant is located adjacent to a forest thus endangering employees to attack by wild animals and allowing quick spread of fire in an accident.

The other category of health hazards is the physical hazards which include is the falling from high heights that have no place to cling or due to collapsing of the mine. Tripping, falls and also slips can occur in the working site. One of the machine grinding stones is pouring them on the ground where individuals passing by are in the danger of being hit. This is seen when a lorry is being while there is a man standing on it thus the danger of tripping and getting hurt. Injuries from working tools, equipment and stones can also occur. This is well illustrated by the man loading the vehicle while he is below a crane and also how much struggle he has lifting the stone s in to the lorry from inside it. Injuries from manual tools, mechanical tools and also eye injury during splitting can also occur. All these can be prevented if the necessary measures are taken. Noise is another occupational hazard due to the heavy running machines that can translate to hearing problems according to UK’s noise at work regulation (1989). Due to the poor planning of the plant operations of the machine also disrupt office operation eventually no smooth running of the company. According to the European Agency for Safety and health during working concerns are being expressed on the increase of noise associated disabilities(2005) The plant mining area is near a source of water thus the danger of one slipping and drowning or the caving in of the mine occurring.

Another major hazard from the pictures is the handling of their gases and fumes which expand due to heating. These have been shown to be stored carelessly in the fields and next to electrical appliances posing the danger of explosions. There is also explosions to some solvents that are contained in glues which when one inhales are carcinogenic or can cause respiratory diseases. Noticed were fumes of smokes emerging from the plant which would expose the danger of breathing abnormalities. The sign boards indicating non smoking zones have rusted thus are not legible posing the danger of explosions due to people violating such rules. Dangers of fire are also likely to occur since the person welding is placing the welding machine without caution which may make the fire spread to the rest of the machinery. Radiation from machines could also occur, these include infra red and ultra violet light from the welding machine that are highly carcinogenic. The compressed gases such as carbon dioxide in fire extinguishers that are important incase of a fire are not enough thus poses a danger of destruction of property incase of a fire. They have not also been maintained properly since they are discolored, have been placed in open air thus the danger of air exposure, erosion and also destruction. A danger from intruding of the confined space can occur since its sign board has faded away and this may cause interference of the electrical appliances and vaults. OSHA has given regulation that confined rooms should be well labeled and only permitted for persons going to work. The working space should be enough Compressed gases should not be placed in between electricity gadgets that can generate heat causing expansion and explosion.

Electrical appliances are sensitive and should be handled with proper care. They should be well insulated since the possibility of coming in contact with live wires is high, also one can suffer of an electric shock. Once electrical appliances are held with bear hands one should not come in contact with your body unless on cleaning your hands so as to prevent biological hazards. These may cause allergies, parasitic diseases and infections. Contact directly with irritating substances should be kept minimal and washing of hands is essential.  Also the welding machines have been placed on the ground and are exposed to direct sunlight and this can lead to destruction by interaction with heat from the sun. Welding should not be done with the naked eye since it utilizes ultra violet light that is destructive to the eyes and can cause blindness. Dangers of chemical exposure have also been experienced. These chemicals can de either carbon monoxide. chlorine and formaldehyde are common in most construction plants. OSHA has set a threshold amount of the chemicals beyond which you should not exhale in a day (Senn.E, 2010).

Another unique invasive pollutant and occupational hazard identified is diesel that is common in equipment using it to reduce friction. It is an airborne contaminant that causes headaches, nausea, respiratory diseases and even cancer. What is outstanding about it is the fact that though life threatening, no standards have been set by OSHA to reduce the risks it causes. It exposure to direct sunlight allows the increase of its evaporation. It is mostly exposed to operators of such devices, truck drivers and mechanics who are often exposed to it. Diesel is also health hazards since if spills occur and are not properly dealt with they can lead to tripping, falling and serious injuries. Diesel should be kept in sufficiently ventilated rooms and away from open flames. Even though the container is emptied it should be tightly sealed.

To ensure occupation safety all wall and working surfaces must be properly installed to prevent caving in or workers from falling. Fencing should be properly and oftenly checked to ensure that it is in good condition. While using a ladder it should be correctly positioned to ensure that no tripping occurs. Safety shoes should be and also protective clothing such as mask, safety goggles, helmet and gloves should be worn. Lifting of heavy loads manually should be avoided and only done using aids for lifting. Protection of the ears is crucial using ear plugs to prevent hearing disabilities. Working clothes should conform to the climatic condition and also drinking a lot of water is healthy. Washing of hands every time you handle poisonous chemicals should be done and each time gloves should be used. When working in dusty areas protective clothing for the respiratory system and the eyes should be worn. Instructions and correct techniques of lifting and moving of heavy loads and running of mechanical lifting aids should be followed





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