introduction to engineering
this is a final paper for ” introduction to engineering” class. the paper must have what i did to build the bridge. and this is the presentation that I did for the bridge project.
? The paper must be prepared and submitted by individual students.
? The final paper is expected to be between 3 and 5 type written pages (single spaced).
? The paper must be typed using a font size of 11 or 12, font type of Times New Roman.
? Have the papers typed, single-spaced, on one side only paper with 25-mm (1 inch) margins
? Margins, in all directions, must be 25 mm (1 inch).
? A cover page must include course number, course title, paper title, student name, affiliation,
corresponding address, E-mail address, and abstract (follow Sato’s lecture on Technical
? Abstract should be between100 and 200 words, including objective of the project,
methodology, and major results and conclusions.
? The primary use of SI units is mandatory. Units other than SI may be given in parenthesis.
? The paper must be succinct, well organized, grammatically, and technically correct. *
? Artwork (e.g., figures, tables, photos, and associated documents) may be included in text or
Appendix (Appendices). Appendices are not included in the page requirement.
? The final paper must be bound (stapled).
and this is the technical writing that must be used in the paper
.Sources: Author Guidelines (Sources: Water Research, Water Environment Research, ASCE) Overall Structure –Manuscript Format (in general)
A complete manuscript should include the following:
1. Title (including authors, their affiliation, and addresses)
5. Methodology (Material and Methods)
7. Discussion (or Results and Discussion)
11. Appendix (or Appendices)
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections (generally for a large document).
? Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, …), 1.2, etc. o Abstract is not included in section numbering.
? Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to ‘the text’.
? Any subsection may be given a brief heading.
? Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
The text should begin with the title of the paper.
? Title should be concise and informative.
? Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
? Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems.
? Title page includes, but not limited to, title of the document, author and coauthors, affiliations, and
Author names and affiliations
On the next line (after the title), place the authors’ names in the order in which they are to be referenced preceded by superscript numbers that correspond to their affiliations, which will be listed below (the corresponding author’s name will also be preceded by an asterisk).
Berinda J. Rossini1*, Lorna E. Ernesto1, Steve M. Harris2
1*COOP, 2 Penna Center, 1500 Heights Boulevard, Suite 600, Philadelphia, PA 00000; e-mail: email@example.com (at the time that this research was conducted, graduate student in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey)
2Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
? Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), indicates this clearly.
? Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names.
? Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front
of the appropriate address.
? Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail
address of each author.
? Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post- publication.
? Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
? Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
? If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ (or ‘Permanent address’) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name.
? The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Abstract and Keywords Abstract
Abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major message.
? Abstract should contain concise, factual information on objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.
o Opinions, obscure terms, and jargon should be avoided
Abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.
o For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full,
without reference to the reference list.
? Abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the
? A suitable abstract length is approximately 150-200 words.
The line below the abstract may contain keywords, listed in order of importance, that identify the main points in the manuscript.
? Immediately after the abstract, provide keywords, but not too many o 3 – 10 keywords
? Avoid general and plural terms, and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”).
? Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.
? List keywords that make your paper easy detectable for interested readers in literature databases.
o Keep in mind that these keywords will be used for indexing purposes. o Repeating terms in the title is usually not needed.
Main Manuscript Body
The body of the text should begin with an Introduction.
? Introduction should include:
o citations of published related work to assess previous research and identify the gap(s) in
o a statement of the objective(s) of the work.
? Provide an adequate background and state the objectives of the work, avoiding a summary of the results.
2. Material and Methods Equipment and Materials
? The vendor (or supplier) and its location (city, state or province, and country if outside the United States) should be included for all equipment and products identified in the methods section.
? Computer software should be identified by name and location of the developer. Methods
? Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced.
? Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be
? Results should be clear and concise.
? Show only those experimental results that are relevant to your objectives and conclusions and which
you want to discuss.
? Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
? Discussion should integrate your findings in a comprehensive picture and place them in the context of
the existing literature.
? Discussion should relate to the published paper and only introduce new material that is required to
clearly establish the writer’s point.
o It is important that a review is more than a summary of the literature; an in-depth critical
discussion is essential for acceptance of a review paper. ? A combined Results and Discussion section can be appropriate.
? Conclusions contain essentially the ‘take-home’ message of a paper.
? Conclusions are not an extension of the discussion or a summary of the results.
? You may list important implications of their work in form of a bulleted list.
? Conclusions must not contain re