Breast cancer in women

Describe the effects of  Breast cancer in women……………………


In ethnic societies today, the most devastating form of cancer in American women is breast cancer. Psychologists have made efforts to study out the causes of breast cancer but less data is found on women who originate from socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Statistics indicated that Breast cancer is evident in both men and women but its prevalence is quite low in men (Arthur, 2005). Findings showed that therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation were least received by African Americans as compared to the Latinas and Asians who received mastectomies. Major concerns for these women included psychosocial concerns such as being a burden in the family, their children, body changes, stereotyping, sexual health concerns and cancer recurrence. Arising challenges were as follows: limited knowledge on breast cancer, cultural sensitivity, cultural factors such as family duties and medical care concerns related to cost, insurance and appointments with the physician.


In this assignment I have come up with a study that addresses the topic on breast cancer in women. For references, I was able to use discussions, readings and assessed descriptions of vital questions and concepts that were closely linked to the topic area. Through out this paper there will be insights concerning the various issues which relate to breast cancer screening so as to reveal suitable knowledge on the disease.

I carried out a qualitative study with survivors of breast cancer from various ethnicities. Qualitative studies are important because they focus on the participants’ experiences feelings and meanings (Bowling, 2002).it aims at highlighting the severity of the problem that is cancer and therefore generating ideas to assist in coming up with solutions. Total number of 92 breast cancer survivors took part in the focus group interviews and filling in of questionnaires (28 Asians, 10 caucasians, 20 Asians and 42 African Americans).I was able to note the ethnic differences that arose in the type of treatment. The study will tackle research questions as follows: what are the signs of breast cancer? Can wearing a bra on a frequent basis cause cancer? Is breast cancer inherited? What are the side effects of chemotherapy? What are some of the risks involved in breast screening? Is it possible to pay treatment without any insurance cover? Is there a time-span for one to be considered cancer free?

During this research study, I was able to use Descriptive type of research design. Descriptive design also referred to as statistical research gives a detailed description and characteristics about the phenomena or the population under study (Arthur, 2005). In my case I was able to find out the characteristics of the various breast cancer survivors in different ethnic groups and other related matters to breast cancer. Descriptive research answers the questions why, who, where, what, how and when. This design deals with variables that can be studied and counted. In this research, I was able to have the total count of women whom I interviewed and gave out questionnaires.

Once I collected my data I was able to use descriptive statistics to present my data since it helps in describing or summarizing data and it does not allow one to make conclusions beyond the analyzed data or suggest conclusions related to the hypotheses made. Descriptive statistics simply describe raw data in a more significant way which leads to appropriate data interpretation (Field, 2009). It is used to summarize data other than use it in a holistic way. In this case 92 women were chosen to participate in the focus group interviews it means that I will be interested in the overall results of their views, the distribution or the spread of ideas and suggestions some would be positive others would be negative. Breast cancer was my variable for this study that could be measured on a nominal scale because there were different breast cancer survivors from the different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. I was able to choose a Grouped frequency distribution to table the variables because when I conducted a descriptive statistics I sampled breast cancer survivors from the African-America, Asian, Latinas and Caucasian community. It gave me an opportunity to organize the data in an appropriate way so that it can be quickly interpreted.

Data collection was 28,10,20,42

Rearrangement done: 10,20,28,42

Ethnic groups frequency
10-20 1
20-30 2
30-40 1
40-50 1


Gene expression analysis has resulted in the discovery of five breast cancer subtypes that have responses to chemotherapy and clinical outcomes. Knowledge in the field of cancer genomics has been exploited in developing strategies for the treatment of tumor. A woman’s response to chemotherapy is caused by the tumor’s genetic characteristics as opposed to inherited variations found in genes. Therefore this phenomenon renders futile beliefs that women have about the causes of cancer such as wearing of bras on a frequent basis. Genomic technologies help in detecting cancer at its earliest stages and thus preventing further growth of the tumor.


Arthur, A., Elaine, N. & Elliot, J. (2005).Statistics for psychology. (5th Ed).Prentice Hall.

Bowling, A. (2002) Research Methods in Health: Investigating Health and Health Services (2nd Ed). Buckingham: Open University Press.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd. Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

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