Reading the Old Testament Methodology Paper

It should be the following order generally speaking

1. Introduction with Thesis Statement
2. Preunderstanding
3. Textual Transmission
4. History, Culture, and Comparative Methodology
5. Source Criticism (Empirical Models)
6. Form Criticism (Sitz im Leben)
7. Tradition-History Criticism
8. Interpretation (Jewish Bible)
9. Application of Methodology
10. Summary & Conclusion


1. B. T. Arnold and B. E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey (2d ed.; Baker, 2008).1
2. Konrad Schmid, The Old Testament: A Literary History (Fortress, 2012).2
3.Gordon Fee, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth (Zondervan, 2003).3
4. James L. Kugel, How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now (Freepress, 2008).4

In addition, need to incorporate any 3 of the following scholarly articles

Hallo W. W. and K.L. Younger. The Context of Scripture. 3 vols. (Brill, 1997-2003).
Matthews, V.H. and D. Benjamin. Old Testament Parallels. 3rd ed. (Paulist, 2006).
Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3d ed. Princeton, 1969.
Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature. (3 vols. Berkeley: 1973-80).
Cogan, Mordechai. The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel. Carta, 2008.
Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989.
Foster, Benjamin R. Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature. 2nd ed. Potomac, MD: CDL Press, 1996.
———. From Distant Days: Myths, Tales, and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia. (Capital Decisions: 1995).
Glassner, Jean-Jacques. Mesopotamian Chronicles. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004.
Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Harps That Once … Sumerian Poetry in Translation. (Yale, 1987).
Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature:
Dead Sea Scrolls
Abegg, M. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible. (Harper, 2002).
Martinez, F.G. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English, 2nd ed. (Eerdmans, 1996).
Wise, M. and M. Abegg, Dead Sea Scrolls: a New Translation. (Harper, 1999).
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Hellenistic Judaism
Jonge, C.D. The Works of Philo. (Hendrickson, 1993).
Schiffman, L.H. Texts and Traditions: A Source Reader for the Study of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. (Ktav, 1998).
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. (Hendrickson, 1987).
Cornfield, Gaalyah and D.N. Freedman. Archaeology of the Bible: Book by Book (Harper & Row, 1976).
Dever, William. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of
Ancient Israel. (Eerdmans, 2001).
Dever, William. Who Were the Early Israelite and Where Did They Come From? (Eerdmans, 2003).
Finkelstein, Israel, Amihai Mazar, Brian B. Schmidt (editor) The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of
Early Israel (SBL, 2007)
Gower, Ralph. New Manners and Customs of the Bible (Moody, 1987).
Hoerth, Alfred J. Archeology and the Old Testament (Baker, 1998).
King, Philip J. and Lawrence E. Stager, Life in Biblical Israel (Library of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2001).
Laughlin, John. Archaeology and the Bible. Routledge, 2000.
Levy, Thomas and T. Higham eds. The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science. (Equinox, 2005).
Magness, Jodi. The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. (Eerdmans, 2003).
Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East (Paulist, 1997).
Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the land of the Bible:10,000-586 B.C.E. The Anchor Bible Reference Library. (Doubleday, 1990).
Pritchard, James B. (ed.) Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton University Press, 1969).
Thompson, J.A. Handbook of Life in Bible Times (InterVarsity, 1986).
Vaux, Roland de. Ancient Israel (McGraw-Hill, 1961).
Zevit, Ziony. The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. (Continuum 2001).
OEANE Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East
NEAEHL New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (now 5 volumes)
Aharoni, Yohanan, M. Avi-Yonah, A. Rainey, and Z. Safrai. The Carta Bible Atlas (Carta, 2002).
Rainey, Anson and R. Steven Notley. The Sacred Bridge: Carta’s Atlas of the Biblical World (Carta, 2006).
*——— , Carta’s New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible (Carta, 2007).
BA Biblical Archaeologist (now NEA)
BAR Biblical Archaeology Review
BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
ESI Excavations and Surveys in Israel (Hadashot Arkhiologiyot)
IEJ Israel Exploration Journal
NEA Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly BA)
Alexander, Philip S. The Targum of Canticles (Liturgical Press, 2003).
Beattie, Derek Robert George and Martin McNamara. The Aramaic Bible: Targums in Their Historical Context. 1992
Pietersma, Albert and Benjamin G. Wright, eds. A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally
Included under That Title. (Oxford, 2007).

I. Epstein, trans. The Babylonian Talmud: Seder Nezikin III (2 vols.; Soncino, 1935).
Sparks, K.L. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible (Hendrickson, 2006).

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Anchor Bible Commentary Series (Doubleday)
Old Testament Library (Westminster John Knox Press)
International Critical Commentary Series (Zondervan)
The New International Commentary Series (Eerdmans)
The Word Biblical Commentary Series (Word)
Interpretation Commentary Series (Westminster John Knox)
The Cambridge Bible Commentary Series (Cambridge)
Hermeneia Bible Commentary Series (Augsburg/Fortress)
Wigram, Englishman’s Hebrew Concorcance of the Old Testament (Zondervan, 1970).
Goodrick, Edward W. and John R. Kohlenberger. NIV Exhaustive Concordance (Zondervan, 1990).
Even-Shoshan, Abraham (ed.). A New Concordance of the Bible (Kiryat Sepher, 1983).
J. Goldingay, Approaches to Old Testament Interpretation (InterVarsity, 1981).
C. Armerding, The Old Testament and Criticism (Eerdmans, 1983).
J. Barton, Reading the Old Testament: Method in Biblical Study (Westminster, 1984).
Walton, John H. The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate (Intervarsity Press, 2009).
———. Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible (Baker, 2006).
Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (2003)
The Anchor Bible Dictionary (1996)
Encyclopedia Judaica (1971-72).
Encyclopedia of Religion (2005)
New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (2006-)
Encyclopedia Judaica, 2d ed. (2006)
Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (1974-)
Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. (1995)
Israel & Judah
Brettler, Mark Z., The Creation of History in Ancient Israel (Routledge, 1995).
Bright, J. A History of Israel. 3d ed. (Westminster, 1981).
Coogan, Michael D., ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Oxford, 1998).
Day, John, ed. In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel (T & T Clark International, 2004).
Hayes, John H. and J. Maxwell Miller, eds. Israelite & Judean History (Trinity Press International, 1977).
————. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, 2d ed. (Westminster John Knox, 2006).
Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah : A Literary and Historical Introduction. 2nd ed.
(Fortress Press, 2005).
Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford, 2002).
Fales, F.M., and J.N. Postgate. Imperial Administrative Records, Part I: Palace and Temple Administration. (State Archives of Assyria 7;
Helsinki University Press, 1992).
Kuhrt, Amelie. The Ancient Near East: 3000-300 BCE (Routledge, 1995).
Luckenbill, Daniel David. 1924. The Annals of Sennacherib (The University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publication 2; Chicago, 1924).
Mark, Samuel. From Egypt to Mesopotamia: A Study of Predynastic Trade Routes (Texas A & M, 1997).
Van De Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC. 2d ed. (Blackwell, 2007).
Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger. Gods, Goddesses and Images of God in Ancient Israel (Fortress, 1998).
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A?ituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period. Jerusalem: Carta, 2008.
Donner, Herbert and W. Röllig, Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften (3 vols. 2d rev. ed.; Otto Harrassowitz, 1969 <1964>).
Hallo, William W., ed. The Context of Scripture (3 vols.; E. J. Brill, 1997).
Hoftijzer, J. and K. Jongeling, Dictionary of North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Vol. 1. (Brill, 1995).
Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. English-language ed.(Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992).
Smelik, Klaas A. D. Writings from Ancient Israel: A Handbook of Historical and Religious Documents. (T & T Clark, 1991).
Magne Saebo, ed., Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation. Volume I: From the Beginnings to the Middle Ages (Until
1300). Part 2: The Middle Ages (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000).
Amerding, Carl E. The Old Testament and Criticism (Eerdmans, 1983).
Childs, Brevard S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture (Fortress Press, 1979).
Coogan, Michael D. The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures (Oxford, 2006).
Dick, Michael Brennan. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible : An Inductive Reading of the Old Testament. (Prentice Hall, 1988).
Kugel, James L. How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture Then and Now (Free Press, 2008).
McKenzie, Steven L. How to Read the Bible: History, Prophecy, Literature—Why Modern Readers Need to Know the Difference, and What
It Means For Faith Today (Oxford, 2009).
Journal of Biblical Literature (JBL)
Catholic Biblical Quarterly (CBQ)
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (JSOT)
Interpretation (Int)
Biblica (Bib)
Vetus Testamentum (VT)
Perspectives in Religious Studies (PRS)
Biblical Archaeologist (BA) – now Near Eastern Archaeology (NEA)
Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR)
Bible Review (BRev)
Tyndale Bulletin (TynB)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies (JNES)
Journal of the American Oriental Society (JAOS)
Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ)
Journal of Jewish Studies (JJS)
Journal of Semitic Studies (JSS)
Journal of the American Academy of Religion (JAAR)
Harvard Theological Review (HTR)
Hebrew Union College Annual (HUCA)
Biblical Theology Bulletin (BTB)
Expository Times (ExpT)
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS)
Biblical Research (BR)
Biblical Interpretation (BibInt)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly (PEQ)
Tel Aviv (TA)
Orientalia (Or)
Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament (SJOT)
Goldingay, J. Approaches to Old Testament Interpretation (InterVarsity, 1981).
Armerding, C. The Old Testament and Criticism (Eerdmans, 1983).
Barton, J. Reading the Old Testament: Method in Biblical Study (Westminster, 1984).
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Alter, R. The Art of Biblical Poetry (Basic Books, 1987).
Berlin, A. The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. Revised and expanded ed. (Eerdmans, 2007).
Kugel, J. 1981. The Idea of Biblical Poetry, Parallelism and Its History (Johns Hopkins, 1998).
Petersen, David L. and Kent Harold Richards, Interpreting Hebrew Poetry (Fortress, 1992).
Watson, W. G. Classical Hebrew Poetry: A Guide to its Techniques (JSOTSup 26. Sheffield, 1984).
Blenkinsopp, Joseph, A History of Prophecy in Israel: From the Settlement in the Land to the Hellenistic Period. (Westminster, 1983).
———. Sage, Priest, Prophet: Religious and Intellectual Leadership in Ancient Israel (Westminster John Knox, 1995).
Collins, John J. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2d ed.; Eerdmans, 1988).
Cook, Stephen L. Prophecy and Apocalypticism: The Postexilic Social Setting (Fortress, 1995).
Evans, Craig A. and Peter W. Flint, eds. Eschatology, Messianism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Eerdmans, 1997).
Hanson, P. D. The Dawn of Apocalyptic (Augsburg, 1979).
———. “Apocalypticism,” IDB Supp., 29. Buttrick, George Arthur, ed. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. 4 vols. (Abingdon, 1962).
Nissinen, Martti. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East (SBL, 2003).
Marti Nissinen, with C. L. Seow and Robert K. Ritner. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. (SBL, 2003).
Ackerman, Susan. Under Every Green Tree: Popular Religion in Sixth Century Judah. (Harvard Semitic Monographs 46. Eisenbrauns,
Dever, William. Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel (Eerdmans, 2005).
Lemaire, Andre. The Birth of Monotheism: The Rise and Disappearance of Yahwism (Biblical Archaeology Society, 2007).
Miller, P. D. The Religion of Ancient Israel (Westminster John Knox, 2000).
Smith, Mark. The Early History of God (Eerdmans, 2002).
———. The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic texts (Oxford, 2001).
Tigay, Jeffrey. You Shall Have No Other Gods: Israelite Religion in the Light of Hebrew Inscriptions (Scholars Press, 1986).
Van der Toorn, Karel, B. Becking, and P. van der Horst eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, 1999).
Zevit, Ziony. The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches (Continuum, 2001).
Byron E. Shafer, ed., Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice (Cornell, 1991).
Black, Jeremey and Anothony Green. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Illustrations by Tessa Rickards (Texas, 1992).
Bottéro, Jean. Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia. Trans. Teresa Lavender Fagan (Chicago, 2001).
Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Tresures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion (Yale, 1976).
Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Translated by John Raffan (Harvard, 1985).
Schniedewind, William M. How the Bible Became a Book (Cambridge, 2004).
Toorn, K. van der. Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible (Harvard, 2007).
Kessler. Rainer. The Social History of Ancient History: An Introduction (Fortress, 2008).
King, Philip J., and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel (Westminster John Knox, 2001).
Matthews, Victor H., and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel, 1250-587 BCE (Hendrickson, 2001).
Oppenhiem, A. Leo. Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization. Revised edition completed by Erica Reiner (Chicago, 1977).
Perdue, Leo, J. Blenkinsopp, J. Collins, and C. Meyers eds. Families in Ancient Israel (Westminster John Knox, 1997).
Pollock, Susan. Ancient Mesopotamia: The Eden That Never Was (New York: Cambridge, 1999).
Vaux, Roland de. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (Eerdmans, 1961).
Gemeren, Willem A. van (ed.) New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis (5 vols. Zondervan, 1997).
Harris, Laird, Gleason Archer, Bruce Waltke (eds). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (2 vols. Moody, 1980).
Jenni, Ernst and Claus Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament (3 vols. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1997).
Young, R. Young’s Analytical Concordance of the Bible (Eerdmans, 1955, rev.).
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Birch, Bruce C., Walter Brueggemann, Terence E. Fretheim and David L. Petersen. A Theological Introduction to the Old Testament
(Abingdon, 1999).
Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament (Fortress, 1997).
Childs, Brevard S. Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments (Fortress, 1992).
Dyrness, William. Themes in Old Testament Theology (InterVarsity, 1979).
Eichrodt, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament (2 vols. Westminster John Knox, 1967).
Kaiser, Walter C. Toward an Old Testament Theology (Zondervan, 1978).
Rad, Gerhard von. Old Testament Theology (2 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1965).

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