1) Choose either the qualitative or quantitative paradigm to defend as your personal choice of how you would do research. Describe this chosen paradigm in detail including its base beliefs, ultimate goals, typical methods, representative designs and philosophical assumptions. Defend why this is a particularly sound method to find answers to your questions.

2) Define and contrast random selection and random assignment. Define and contrast internal, external and construct validity. Discuss the relationships among and between the types of randomization and validity. A diagram might be useful.

3) Given the following set of scores: (100, 100, 99, 99, 99, 98, 97, 96, 91, 90, 89, 85, 83, 30)
a) Calculate the three measures of central tendency.
b) Choose a best measure of C.T. and defend your choice.
c) Calculate the standard deviation and range
d) Find the Z and T score for the median.
e) Is this a normal distribution? Why or why not?
f) Create an appropriate graph of the data

4) Define and give an original illustrative example of the following threats to validity:
Selection, Maturation, Instrumentation, Regression, Mortality, Testing

5) Define and give an example of a) an independent variable b) a dependent variable c) a categorical variable d) a quantitative variable e) a moderator variable f) an intervening threat

6) a) Define correlation, give its symbol and discuss the values it can have including the signs,
b) What does it mean that age and beauty are negatively correlated at 0.8?
c) What percentage of the population has an IQ above 115?
d) What does it mean to say that the difference in means was statistically significant p<.05
e) Contrast norm and criterion referenced tests
f) Describe how a measurement could have good reliability, but poor validity
Matching Questions:

a) We will investigate the academic abilities of students raised in the northeast verses those raised in the southeast

b) This is a great test, do you? Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree

c) We will measure academic ability and co-curricular participation in individuals and see if there is a relationship between the two variables

d) I want to study the perceptions of gang members in Bristol by becoming a member for a month

e) I ask you to tell me a story about an ink blot to determine your emotional state

f) I determine the baseline level for a baby’s crying before playing music to sooth him during naps

g) My purpose in research is to make changes to my practice

h) I am trying to apply the findings of a study to a very different population

i) I select a set of schools, then individual students to be in my study

j) The difference between control and treatment groups was half a standard deviation

k) The branch of philosophy that states how we know

l) A philosophy that believes in a single knowable reality

m) A number of studies combined for one result

n) An integral part of ethical practice

Meta-Analysis
Hawthorne Effect
Correlation
Epsitemology
Phenomenology
Ontology
Informed Consent
Positivism
Likert Scale
Stratified Sampling
Diffusion
Qualitative Ethnography
Survey
Single Subject Research
Action Research
Triangulation
Ecological Generalization
Causal Comparative
Performance Assessment
Two Stage Sampling
Effect Size
History
Projective Test
Parameter

What is reality and how does one come to know truth?