The formulations of Sigmund Freud and Jung constitute one of the most important shifts in thinking of the
20th Century. Since then, psychoanalytic thinkers have extended and elaborated psychoanalytic theory in all
areas, including the relation between psyche and culture. Today, in the 21st century, the interest in
spirituality has been gaining grounds and, perhaps, the gap between psychoanalytic psychotherapy and
spiritual psychotherapy could be bridged for a more inclusive field to emerge.