learning disabilities (LD) in children

Outline and References


The research paper utilizes supportive text and quotes from scholars about learning disabilities (LD) in children; its existence, diagnosis & occurrence, types and treatment. It begins with a brief history of the recognition of difficulty in learning as a disability in the US in 1968 (Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs & Barnes, 2007 p 9). Since there emerged a problem in defining learning disabilities, there was the need to classify them into small groups which then can be assigned to the few similar characteristics that are common among them (Fletcher et al, 2007 p 26). The paper goes on to state why learning disabilities are difficult to define: its unobservable construct characteristic (cannot be measured) and the fact that it is dimensional (it takes a particular part of learning such as reading and not the whole of the learning process). The dimensional nature has been found to be consistent with the hereditary nature of this characteristic (Fletcher et al, 2007 p 29). The literature review will consist also of the assessment of learning in the American society from which it brings out the findings of related studies about occurrence in the average society and how to recognize children with learning disabilities (Fletcher et al, 2007). The research paper ends with the recommendation for further studies on the impact of those children with disabilities when they interact with those who are normal. The attitude of a child could affect the rate at which the child understands what he/she is being taught. The child who is self-centered will always want to be allowed to work out his own way.

The research experiment will involve collecting data from secondary sources to verify the occurrence of learning, if it has an influence in the general understanding on a particular age group and if those who possess the disability are aware, what efforts are they adding to see that they catch up. All these are in consideration but to avoid the vagueness of picking up two many items, only two will be considered which will generate the hypotheses: H1: the parents of children with LD are aware that their children have learning disability and are giving them special attention. H2: The parents of the children with LD are aware but they think that is normal. The two hypotheses come from the fact that some people think LD is normal and will disappear with age (Grant, Goward, Ramcharan, & Richardson, p 174 & 178). Since the collection of primary data requires is generally costly from the personnel required to the statistical methods that must be adhere to so as to make the data scientific the data to be used here will be secondary otherwise primary sources from a single person could borrow biases from the individual’s subjectivity and homogeneity of the areas he/she may choose to collect data from. It will consider a list of 20 respondents and application of the chi-square test to show which hypothesis is true. The likely condition is that majority of the respondents will feel that there is no need to give the child special attention and that if they are not quick to learn in the classroom then they could be good elsewhere which is line with the dimensional nature of LD. Those who act may be because they don’t believe in the hindrance of LD, that it can be substituted with effort. Lastly the research experiment will suggest the need to complete the study on the distribution of LD against age, social class, types of family and other variables that have impact on children (Gruber J, p 126,127).






Fletcher M.J., (2007). Learning Disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York: The Guilford Press.

Grant .G, Goward .P, Ramcharan .P & Richardson .M. (2005).Learning disability: A life cycle approach to valuing people. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Gruber J., (2009). The problems of Disadvantaged youth: an economic perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.